The museum was founded in 1894 as the museum of the Priamursky department of the Imperial Russian Geographical Society (POIRGO), in 1902 it was given the name Grodekovsky in memory of the services of Priamursky Governor-General N.I. Grodekov in the organization and establishment of the museum, in 2002 the name of N.I. Grodekov in the name of the Khabarovsk Krai Museum was restored.
The expositions and exhibitions include exhibits devoted to paleontology and geology of the Amur region, flora and fauna of the Far East, fish of the Amur basin, culture of indigenous peoples of the Amur region and Slavic settlers, history of exploration and development of the Russian Far East, events of the Civil War in the Far East in 1917-1922. Temporary exhibitions are regularly exhibited.